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Cysts of the Jaw – Nonodontogenic Cysts

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Nonodontogenic Cysts

In this article, we will write about the different types of nonodontogenic cysts, its special features, diagnosis  and proper management and treatment. To read about more about other types of cysts of the jaw:
Nasopalatine cyst

Nasopalatine cyst

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Nasopalatine cyst

Other Names

Nasopalatine canal cyst, Incisive canal cyst, Nasopalatine cyst, Median palatine cyst, Median anterior maxillary cyst

 

Definition

Circular-shaped nasopalatine duct cyst (incisive canal cyst) located in the region of the maxillary central incisors. The central incisors are vital and have intact periodontal ligament space and lamina dura.

Circular-shaped nasopalatine duct cyst (incisive canal cyst) located in the region of the maxillary central incisors. The central incisors are vital and have intact periodontal ligament space and lamina dura.

Is a developmental cyst derived from embryonic epithelial remanants of the nasopalatine duct. It usually  contains a primitive organ of smell and both nasopalatine vessels and nerves.

 

Clinical Features

  • It occurs in adult 4th to 6th decades.
  • Occur more frequetly in men.
  • It causes palatal swelling in the site of incisive papilla
  • It may be symptomless or present as a slowly enlarging swelling in the front region of the midline of the palate. Occasionally it discharges into the mouth in which the person may complain of a salty taste. Pain may occur if the cyst becomes secondarily inflamed.

 

Radiography

  • Location

Found in the nasopalatine foreman or canal. Depending on the location of expansion it has different variations.

  • Periphery and Shape

Radiolucent
Well defined and corticated
Circular or oval in shape, but sometimes the nasal spine covers the cyst giving it a unique heart shape.
This cyst may not always be positioned symmetrically

  • Surrounding structures.

Most cases the Cyst cause the roots to diverged or in some rarer case leads to root resorption.

Differential Diagnosis

  • Incisive foramen
  • A radicular cyst or granuloma associated with a central incisor

Treatment

Treated by enucleation.

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Median Cysts

Features

  • Its a variation of nasopalatine  cyst, they are rare and occur in either  the palate or the lower jaw.
    • If this cyst extends posteriorly to involve the hard palate ,it often is referred to as a median palatal cyst.
    • If it expands anteriorly between the central incisors, destroying or expanding the labial plate of bone and causing the teeth to diverge, it sometimes is referred to as a median anterior maxillary cyst.

Clinical Features

  • Identical to nasopalatine cyst.

 

Treatment

  • Identical to nasopalatine cyst.

 

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Globumaxillary cyst

Globulomaxillary cyst showing the characteristic inverted pear-shaped appearance between the maxillary canine and lateral incisor.

Globulomaxillary cyst showing the characteristic inverted pear-shaped appearance between the maxillary canine and lateral incisor.

Definition

  • Epithelium entrapment within a line of embryological closure with subsequent cystic change.
  • located between globular and maxillary processes.
  • Premaxilla and maxillary processes do not fuse.

 

Radiographically

  • well-defined Radiolucent.
  • The cyst often produces divergence of the roots of the maxillary, lateral incisor and the canine.
  • It has a unique Inverted Pear Shape radiolucency

Treatment

  • Treatment and prognosis are determined by definitive microscopic diagnosis.
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Nasolabial cyst

Features

Nasolabial cyst is a soft tissue cyst which is made visible on the radiograph by injecting it with a radiopaque dye.

Nasolabial cyst is a soft tissue cyst which is made visible on the radiograph by injecting it with a radiopaque dye.

The nasolabial cyst is a rare lesion which arises in the soft tissue of the upper lip just below the ala of the nose. It has been suggested that it arises from remnants of the embryonic nasolacrimal duct. It is a Cystic change of the solid cord remnants of cells that form the nasolabial duct.

 

Clinical Features

  • 4th to 5th decades.
  • More in Female (4:1).
  • Soft tissue swelling over the canine region or mucobuccal fold.
  • No radigraphics changes in bone.
  • It presents as a slowly enlarging soft tissue swelling obliterating the nasolabial fold and distorting the nostril.
  • The cyst may arise on both sides of the face.

 

Treatment

  • Curettage or surgical excision.
  • Recurrence incidence isn’t common.

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Sources

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About Author

Mohammed AlShanbari

Dentist and Guest Author on OziDent. He earned his BDS in 2011 from Ibn Sina College, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia with honors. Currently working as a Demonstrator in Umm al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. His Goal is to be a Maxillofacial surgeon. In His Free time he enjoys Photography and Trying different Cuisine.

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